How to use the programme


In [Guide]Introduction it is explained how you make SuomiTan accessible on your computer. As said, the running programme has a topmost bar with a number of push-buttons on the screen: [F-D,D-F] [(D-)F _] [(F-)D ,] [full articles +] [++] [+-] [F analysis -] [D analysis --] [found] [F reverse k_] [D reverse b_] [Vejledning] [Guide] and Window.


The main window contains an upper left window with results and a lower right window with guide or dictionary. If you place the cursor on the uppermost blue bar of a window and press the left mouse button down, the window will follow the cursor.


Here follows an explanation to the first eleven push-buttons, from [F-D,D-F] to [D reverse b_].



[F-D,D-F] [(D-)F _] [(F-)D ,]


The first push-button is [F-D,D-F]; if you push it, a small dialog box will pop up. Here you may write the Finnish or Danish word that is to be looked up. You may also point at a word in a window and double click the left mouse button (or tap the mouse pad on a laptop computer). It is possible to write in the window 'results'.


Now give the word "ahkera" (without quotation marks). In the window "results" the programme responds:


  suomi:  (i2,106 1) >ahkera  . flittig


"ahkera" is Finnish (suomi) and means 'flittig' in Danish. "i2;106 1" indicates the first segment of article no. 106 in the dictionary file i2. Selection of "106" in "i2;106" will give the full lexicon article i2,106 :


  suomi:  (i2,106) >ahkera  . flittig | >aherrus >ahertaa >ahertaja >ahkerasti | :ahkeraliisa


Selection of "106" in "i2,106" (with a comma) will show that region of the dictionary file i2 in a new window down right. Each article in the dictionary occupies a line in the file. If you write a "-" in front (i.e. "-i2,106"), the lines are not broken at the right window border. ("-" is found down right on the keyboard.)


The signs ">" and ":" indicate entry words resp. composite entry words. "aherrus", "ahertaa", "ahertaja" and "ahkerasti" are derivations of the stem (in) "ahkera"; "ahkeraliisa" (the plant 'busy Lizzie') is a compound (yhdyssana) of "ahkera" and (the name) "liisa", see [Guide]Compounds.


If you give a word (e.g. "ahkera") through the push-button [(D-)F _] (or with a sign _ : "_ahkera" through [F-D,D-F]), it will be looked up in the Finnish part of the Danish-Finnish dictionary:


   (t9,149) >flink  . kiltti, ystävällinen, kelpo; hyvä, ahkera

   (t9,164) >flittig  . ahkera

   (t23,37) >morakker  . liian ahkera työntekijä

   (t23,241) >myreflittig  . ahkera kuin muurahainen


("_" is upper case of "-" on the keyboard.)


If you give a word (e.g. "flittig") through the push-button [(F-)D ,] (or with a sign , : ",flittig" through [F-D,D-F]), it will be looked up in the Danish part of the Finnish-Danish dictionary:


   (i2;106 1) >ahkera  . flittig |

   (i91,259) >uuras  . flittig, ihærdig

   (i91;279 1) >uuttera  . flittig, driftig |


The sign "," is used before Danish botanical names in the Danish-Finnish dictionary; the full names are in the Finnish-Danish dictionary, see the later part of [Guide]Compounds.



[full articles +] [++] [+-]


The programme will remember the latest given word. Give e.g. "ahkera" through the push-button [full articles +] (or with a sign + : "+ahkera" through [F-D,D-F]) and obtain:


  suomi:  (i2,106) >ahkera  . flittig | >aherrus >ahertaa >ahertaja >ahkerasti |


("+" is found after the row of digits, i.e. after "0" on the keyboard.)


The compound :ahkeraliisa, which is not in the pocket dictionary, is not shown; it will be if you give a word in the article through the push-button [++]:


  suomi:  (i2,106) >ahkera  . flittig | >aherrus >ahertaa >ahertaja >ahkerasti | :ahkeraliisa


If you give a word through the push-button [+-] (or with signs +- : "+-ahkera" through [F-D,D-F]), the articles are shown as they are in the dictionary:


 looked in (double click/tap) : I2 o2 C1 m1 s1 T1 n3 R1 y7

  i2,106  "ahkera  . flittig | >aherrus >ahertaa >ahertaja +sti | &liisa


(Above, "+" was replaced by ">ahkera" and "&" by ":ahkera".) Now the programme also shows where it searched in the dictionaries I and T and in in a number of word lists. If you select one of them, it will be shown in a new window down right.



[F analysis -] [D analysis --] [found]


If you give a word through [F analysis -] or [D analysis --], the programme will attempt to analyse it in Finnish resp. Danish parts. "ahkera" through [F analysis -] (or "-ahkera" through [F-D,D-F]) thus gives:


  suomi:  (i2;106 1) >ahkera  . flittig |

  suomi:  (i2,107) >ahkeraan 0 (=ahkera)


  More (double click/tap) :  s 0


Now the programme shows all the signed occurences of the given word in the files i. "ahkeraan" is singular, illative of "ahkera", which is given with the sign "=" in parentheses as an explanation. The programme cannot analyse illative case forms, but "ahkeraan" is an entry word in Kielitoimiston sanakirja - which just says that the form "ahkerasti" is more common.


Last comes a line "s 0". You may select one of them by double clicking or through the push-button [found]. Selection of "s" gives:


s : Finnish words in the text of T

  dansk:  (t9,149) >flink  . kiltti, ystävällinen, kelpo; hyvä, ahkera

  dansk:  (t9,164) >flittig  . ahkera

  dansk:  (t23,37) >morakker  . liian ahkera työntekijä

  dansk:  (t23,241) >myreflittig  . ahkera kuin muurahainen


  More (double click/tap) :  o 0


The same is obtained with "ahkera" through the push-button [(D-)F _], see above.


Selection of "0" (the digit) gives:


0 : simplest analysis/analyses

   Analysis :  ahkera/  =  ahkera4.¤0  (s,n)

  suomi:  (i2;106 1) >ahkera  . flittig |

  <.¤0  singular, nominative>


  More (double click/tap) :  o s


"ahkera" is analysed as the nominal stem ahkera4 with the zero inflexion (4).¤0 for singular, nominative ("¤" = no substance). "ahkera" is an adjective. Finnish adjectives and nouns take the same inflexions - if the Finnish morphemes of degree (comparison) are treated as derivatives, that is.


The first word in each article = line in a file i is considered a stem. After it come two spaces, and often a digit 0/1/2/4/5 between them.


Verbal stems are given in the Finnish-Danish dictionary with the inflexion (2).TA0 for first infinitive and with a digit 2 between the spaces. E.g. ahkeroida 2 is interpreted as the verbal stem ahkeroi2  with the said inflexion. Give "-ahkeroida" and obtain:


  suomi:  (i2;108 1) >ahkeroida 2 . beflitte sig, gøre sig umage |


  More (double click/tap) :  s 0 2 7


0 : simplest analysis/analyses

   Analysis :  ahkeroi/da  =  ahkeroi2.TA0  (TA)

  suomi:  (i2;108 1) >ahkeroida 2 . beflitte sig, gøre sig umage |

  <.TA0  first infinitive>


  More (double click/tap) :  o s 2 7


The word is analysed as the verbal stem ahkeroi2 with the said inflexion.


"2" gives a deeper analysis:



   Analysis :  ahker/oi/da  =  ahkera4.Oi2.TA0  (TA)

  suomi:  (i2;106 1) >ahkera  . flittig |

  <.Oi2  ikäv/öidä (ikävä), tupak/oida (tupakka), pysäk/öidä (pysäkki), ennak/oida (ennakko), ihann/oida (ihanne), hope/oida (hopea)>

  <.TA0  first infinitive>


  More (double click/tap) :  o s 0 7


The verbal stem ahkeroi2 is probably ahkera4 with the derivational morpheme (4).Oi2 . The meaning of the derivational morphemes is shown with a few examples only.


After "ahkera" in the dictionary article come just the two spaces, meaning that the stem is nominal with the (for nominal stems with this form in the singular, nominative) most common inflection. Nominals with a less common (but regular) inflection are given with a digit 4 (or 5 in a few cases). E.g. "suomi" is suomi 4 in the dictionary and "suomen" in singular genitive. "parfait" is parfait 5 in the dictionary and "parfait'n" in singular, genitive.


All other stems or words are given with a digit 0 (or 1, see below) in the Finnish dictionary. "ahkeraan" is an example.


I have added no digit for word class and inflection after the Danish stems; the default value 0 is ascribed to them all. But a few small words are given with 1 in order to suppress false analyses involving them. The Finnish dictionary also has 1 (here: instead of 0) after a few small words which cannot combine with others.


In the article for "ahkera" occurs i.a. the derivation "aherrus"; give it through [F analysis -] (or give "-aherrus") and obtain:


  suomi:  (i2;106 2)  >aherrus >ahertaa >ahertaja >ahkerasti |


  More (double click/tap) :  0 2 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13


0 : simplest analysis/analyses

   Analysis :  aher/r/us/  =  ahera4.tA2.Ux4.¤0  (s,n)

  suomi:  (i2;107 1) >ahkera  . flittig |

  <.tA2  huol/taa (huoli), ymmär/tää (ympäri), hirt/tää (hirsi), autuut/taa (autuus), sairas/taa (sairas), kaunis/taa (kaunis), suomalais/taa (suomalainen), aher/taa (ahkera), paimen/taa (paimen)>

  <.Ux4  ava/us (avata), hengit/ys (hengittää), metsäst/ys (metsästää), epäil/ys (epäillä), menest/ys (menestyä), kauhist/us (kauhistua)>

  <.¤0  singular, nominative>


  More (double click/tap) :  o 2 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13


The word is probably ahkera4 with the derivatives (4).tA2 and (2).Ux4 and the inflexion (4)0 for singular, nominative.


After the article for ahkera (i2,106) in the dictionary come the following three:


"ahkeraan 0 (=ahkera)

"ahkeroida 2 . beflitte sig, gøre sig umage | >ahkerointi

"ahkeruus  . flid


As said above, "ahkeraan" is an inflected form (singular, illative) which this version of the programme cannot analyse. "ahkeroida" and "ahkeruus" are regular derivations of "ahkera". They are given in separate entries because they occur (with a Danish translation) in the pocket dictionary.


Some entries begin with two or more stem forms; "manner" through [++] thus gives:


  suomi:  (i47,170) >manner  >mantere  . fastland | >mantereinen >mantereisuus | :mannerilmasto :mannerjalusta :mannerjää | :mannerjäätikkö :mannerlaatta :mannerliikunto | :mannerrinne :mannervaltio


If you give e.g. "mantereinen" through [F analysis -], the programme will also find the stem mantere4 and recognize the word correctly:


0 : simplest analysis/analyses

   Analysis :  mantere/inen/  =  mantere4.inen4.¤0  (s,n)

  suomi:  (i47;170 1) >manner  >mantere  . fastland |

  <.inen4  aika/inen (aika), hik/inen (hiki), /inen (jää), lu/inen (luu), käte/inen (käsi), paksu/inen (paksu), hope/inen (hopea), alipaine/inen (alipaine)>

  <.¤0  singular, nominative>


  More (double click/tap) :  o 6 8 9 11 15



[F reverse k_] [D reverse b_]


If you give a word through [F reverse k_] or [D reverse b_], it will be reversed and looked up in lists of reversed Finnish resp. Danish entry words. "ahkerointi" through [F reverse k_] (or "k_ahkerointi") thus gives:


ahkerointi, käänteinen : itniorekha

 looked in : a74


Selection of "a74" will now show all the words in the files o which resemble "ahkerointi" on the right.


"käänteinen" through [++] gives:


  suomi:  (i39,227) >käänne  . vending, drejning; (=tien) kurve, sving; (=vaatteen) opslag | %käänteinen | :käännekohta . vendepunkt | :käännepiste

  suomi:  (i39,232) >käänteinen  . omvendt | >käänteisesti >käänteistää


(Note that Finnish words in an example of another Finnish stem are written with the sign "="; and similarly for Danish.)


"käänteinen" is a derivation of "käänne"; "%käänteinen" (with a sign "%" corresponding to "-" in Kielitoimiston sanakirja) indicates that it (also) occurs as the second part of compounds.


"käänteis-" through [++] gives:


  suomi:  (i39,233) >käänteis-  (=käänteinen) : :käänteisarvo :käänteisluku | :käänteisnäyttö :käänteissanakirja


käänteinen4 is the first part of these compounds. Separators | have been inserted so that no segment contains more than 3 compounds.